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In response to the 1973 oil embargo, many states began passing building energy codes in order to promote energy efficiency. While the vast majority of states have energy codes in place, policymakers are now attempting to legislate energy codes at the federal level to help address more recent concerns about energy efficiency and climate change. Nevertheless, surprisingly little is known about whether energy codes are an effective way to reduce energy consumption in practice. This paper provides the first evaluation of an energy-code change that uses residential billing data on both electricity and natural gas, combined with data on observable characteristics of each residence. The study takes place in Gainesville, Florida, and the empirical strategy is based on comparisons between residences constructed just before and just after Florida increased the stringency of its energy code in 2002. We find that the increased stringency of the energy code is associated with a 4-percent decrease in electricity consumption and a 6-percent decrease in natural-gas consumption. The pattern of savings is consistent with reduced consumption of electricity for air-conditioning and reduced consumption of natural gas for heating. We also estimate economic costs and benefits and find that the private payback period for the average residence is 6.4 years. The social payback period, which accounts for the avoided costs of air-pollution emissions, ranges between 3.5 and 5.3 years.

 

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The three questions for this discussion group are as follows:


· Does the concern to mitigate climate change provide innovative opportunities to fund development?
· Will this result in development that is more sustainable at a local level? What are the implications for equity and justice?
· How can we ensure that mitigation funding does not crowd out other funding?

 

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The development of modern or high yielding crop varieties (MVs) for developing countries began in a concerted fashion in the late 1950s. In the mid-1960s,scientists developed MVs of rice and wheat that were subsequently released to farmers in Latin America and Asia. The success of these MVs was characterized as a “Green Revolution.” Early rice and wheat MVs were rapidly adopted in tropical and subtropical regions with good irrigation systems or reliable rainfall. These MVs were associated with the first two major international agricultural research centers (IARCs): the International Center for Wheat and Maize Improvement in Mexico (CIM-MYT) and the International Rice Research Institute in the Philippines (IRRI). There are now16 such centers that operate under the auspices of the Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) (1). These centers currently support about 8500 scientists and scientific staff, and the annual budget of the CGIAR is currently around $340 million.

 

 

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Agricultural businesses in developing countries offer an opportunity for market based economic development that creates benefits throughout global value chains.1 prosperity and job creation in places where poverty is endemic. Further, it addresses key economic and social issues that affect the everyday lives of people in the United States, including immigration, drug production, post-conflict reconstruction, and supply chain stability. Supporting the stability and growth of such businesses fosters economic

 

 

 

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In recent years, agricultural protection and its impact on developing countries have attracted growing attention. While manufacturing protection has declined worldwide following substantial reforms of trade policies, especially in developing countries, most industrial and many developing countries still protect agriculture at high levels. Agricultural protection continues to be among the most contentious issues in global trade negotiations, with high protection in industrial countries being the main cause of the breakdown of the Cancún Ministerial Meetings those leaving the farm, growth and modernization of agriculture create jobs in agricultural processing and marketing, as well as the expansion of other nonfarm jobs.

 

 

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This Study was undertaken during February and March 2007. The aim of the Study was todescribe the main elements of the food processing industry in Pakistan. Food processing or manufacture is part of an integrated industry that takes agricultural raw materials and moves them through a complex value chain. This value chain connects the farmer often located in impoverished rural areas of the country, to consumers in cities both domestically and overseas. The key to success in this endeavor is to develop a fully advanced supply chain in every sub-sector of the food economy. In Pakistan this supply chain is either missing or highly distorted. A supply chain that does not adequately transmit information from the consumer to the producer accounts for the failure of the system to produce products efficiently or of the correct quality.

 

 

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Recent experience of a number of countries has amply shown that there is a positive relationship between Technology and output.A technology refer to use of either a new input o ran improvement in traditional factor of production.

 

 

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Summary An approach to sustainable and equitable development requires well informed, purposeful courses of action by the state and other concerned social actors. Land tenure institutions have to be continually adapted and regulated to serve the public interest. But unless the institutions and policies regulating rights and obligations in access to land are somehow made primarily accountable to poor majorities, to low-income minorities and unborn generation so instead of to currently dominant corporate and other powerful groups public interest can easily be interpreted to mean the opposite of sustainable development.

 

 

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Successful land reform has certainly been one of the largest challenges in agricultural development practically all over the Third World – in Africa, Asia, Central and Southern America and Eastern Europe, agriculture was plagued with problems such as uneven access to land resources, severe rural poverty, unproductive use of land and resources and also social, economic and political inequality. Issues concerning the occupation, ownership and use of land have very often been at the root of revolutions. There are large similarities and equally large dissimilarities in land systems and traditions in different continents and also parts and countries in the same continent. In by far the major part of Sub Saharan Africa, colonial or semi-colonial rule was still reality a half century ago. Colonial structures superseded local structures and customs. Neither have theapproximately forty years of decolonisation and political independence brought intheir wake agricultural and economic progress and prosperity. Land issues have in most parts contributed to the lack of progress. Ethnic issues have in parts of Africa been important contributors to social, political and economic unrest,including those impacting on the use, distribution and productivity of landresources. Rwanda, Burundi and Congo (the present DRC) are examples.

 

 

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This chapter synthesizes the results of Work Group II of the Third Assessment Report (TAR) and assesses the state of knowledge concerning Article 2 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The TA R ’s task is to define what is known about the effects of c l imate change: how sensitive systems are, what adaptive capacity they have, and what their vulnerability is. It is not the goal of this assessment to determine whether these effects are tolerable or are considered dangerous.

 

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