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A multi-stage conflict model is developed to analyze international hazardous waste disposal disputes. More specifically, the ongoing toxic waste conflicts are divided into two stages consisting of the dumping prevention and dispute resolution stages. The modeling and analyses, based on the methodology of graph model for conflict resolution (GMCR), are used in both stages in order to grasp the structure and implications of a given conflict from a strategic viewpoint. Furthermore, a specific case study is investigated for the Ivory Coast hazardous waste conflict. In addition to the stability analysis, sensitivity and attitude analyses are conducted to capture various strategic features of this type of complicated dispute.

 

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Climate change is caused by accelerated increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations in the atmosphere. There is now a strong consensus that climate change presents a fundamental challenge to the well-being of all countries, with potential of being the most harsh on countries already suffering from water scarcity. Water scarcity is a well-established context for development in arid and semi-arid countries. A recent IPCC report (IPCC, 2008) predicts that climate change over the next century will affect rainfall patterns, river flows and sea levels all over the world. For many parts of the arid regions there is an expected precipitation decrease over the next century of 20% or more. Even if efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions are successful, it is no longer possible to avoid some degree of global warming and climate change. The 5th World Water Forum will pay particular attention to ‘Adapting to climate change’ in its thematic, regional and political processes. This Perspective Document focuses on the arid and semi-arid regions of the world and is one of 15 other documents which are intended to provide input to address adaptation to the consequences of climate variability and change in the short and long term in these regions.

 

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This report is structured in the following way: First, a synthesis of individual studies is given. The synthesis contains key findings only, along with selected charts, tables, graphs, maps, and text boxes. Second, stakeholders are given tables by themes (see paragraph 1 of the Executive Summary above) to enable CCAP's Secretariat to record their significance rankings for impacts emanating from changes in sea level, sea temperature, precipitation, and atmospheric temperature. Further, the table records their proposed activities for inclusion in union council level adaptation plans. Third, annexures to the report provide survey instruments or other large maps and tables that accompany our synthesis of each study. This can help readers to reference detailed data as they use the synthesis report at CCAP's consultations of Saturday 29 December 2012, 28 February 2013 and thereafter.

 

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Annual Energy Outlook 2011

with Projections to 2035

The projections in the Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) Annual Energy Outlook 2011 (AEO2011) focus on the factors that shape the U.S. energy system over the long term. Under the assumption that current laws and regulations remain unchanged throughout the projections, the AEO2011Reference case provides the basis for examination and discussion of energy production, consumption, technology, and market trends and the direction they may take in the future. It also serves as a starting point for analysis of potential changes in energy policies. But AEO2011is not limited to the Reference case. It also includes 57 sensitivity cases (see Appendix E, Table E1), which explore important areas of uncertainty for markets, technologies, and policies in the U.S. energy economy.

Key results highlighted in AEO2011 include strong growth in shale gas production, growing use of natural gas and renewables in electric power generation, declining reliance on imported liquid fuels, and projected slow growth in energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions even in the absence of new policies designed to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.

AEO2011also includes in-depth discussions on topics of special interest that may affect the energy outlook. They include: impacts of the continuing renewal and updating of Federal and State laws and regulations; discussion of world oil supply and price trends shaped by changes in demand from countries outside the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development or in supply available from the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries; an examination of the potential impacts of proposed revisions to Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards for light-duty vehicles and proposed new standards for heavy-duty vehicles; the impact of a series of updates to appliance standard alone or in combination with revised building codes; the potential impact on natural gas and crude oil production of an expanded offshore resource base; prospects for shale gas; the impact of cost uncertainty on construction of new electric power plants; the economics of carbon capture and storage; and the possible impact of regulations on the electric power sector under consideration by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Some of the highlights from those discussions are mentioned in this Executive Summary. Readers interested in more detailed analyses and discussions should refer to the “Issues in focus” section of this report.

 

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End-of-life home appliances discarded in Japan are reused in Southeast Asia; end-of-life computers are reused in China. E-waste scrap generated in Asia is recycled in China, especially in Guangdong Province. The informal sector in that province has been recycling E-waste scrap and its improper recycling methods have caused serious pollution. In response to this problem, there is wide support for a total ban on E-waste trade, including secondhand items and E-waste scrap. Alternatively, we recommend the establishment of an alternative proper recycling system in Asia that needs cooperation among all Asian countries. First, China is urged to promote proper domestic recycling activities by providing a subsidy for proper recycling. Second, Japan, as a main exporter of E-waste, should establish a traceability system that ensures E-waste scrap exported from Japan will be recycled at proper recycling facilities in China.

 

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Electronic waste, or e-waste, is an emerging problem as well as a business opportunity of increasing significance, given the volumes of e-waste being generated and the content of both toxic and valuable materials in them. The fraction including iron, copper, aluminium, gold and other metals in e-waste is over 60%, while pollutants comprise 2.70%. Given the high toxicity of these pollutants especially when burned or recycled in uncontrolled environments, the Basel Convention has identified e-waste as hazardous, and developed a framework for controls on transboundary movement of such waste. The Basel Ban, an amendment to the Basel Convention that has not yet come into force, would go one step further by prohibiting the export of e-waste from developed to industrializing countries. Section 1 of this paper gives readers an overview on the e-waste topic—how e-waste is defined, what it is composed of and which methods can be applied to estimate the quantity of e-waste generated. Considering only PCs in use, by one estimate, at least 100 million PCs became obsolete in 2004. Not surprisingly, waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) today already constitutes 8% of municipal waste and is one of the fastest growing waste fractions.

 

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E-waste, a relatively recent addition to the waste stream in the form of discarded electronic and electric equipment, is getting increasing attention from policy makers as the quantity being generated is rising rapidly. One of the most promising policy options to address this issue is to extend the producers responsibility for their products beyond the point of sale, until end-of-product-life. This paper briefly introduces the concept of extended producer responsibility (EPR) and its applicability in the area of the end-of-life management of electronic and electrical equipment (EEE). It then examines the decade-long experience of Switzerland in using EPR to manage its e-waste, elaborating on the experience of the Swiss system in overcoming specific issues, and finally wrapping up with a synopsis of the lessons for policy makers. We consider each issue as an enquiry of questions confronting a policy maker and the choices that may present themselves. The five issues discussed are: (i) the challenges in getting an EPR based system started; (ii) securing financing to ensure a self-sustaining and smooth functioning system; (iii) organising a logistics network for the take back and collection of the e-waste; (iv) ensuring compliance of the various actors involved; and finally (v) reducing the threat of monopolistic practices. 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: e-Waste; WEEE; Extended producer responsibility; EPR; Environmental policy

 

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Climate change adaptation and development; exploring the linkages

 

 

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Overview of electronic waste (e-waste) management practices and legislations, and their poor applications in the developing countries

 

 

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The system dynamics-based energy sector described here adds a representation of energy supply and demand dynamics, and their associated carbon emissions, to a larger society-biosphere-climate model previously described in Davies and Simonovic (2008). The inclusion of an energy sector expands the earlier model considerably, and provides new avenues for its application to policy development. Five interconnected components constitute the full energy sector: demand, resources, economics, production, and emissions. The energy demand component calculates changes over time in heat energy and electric-energy demand as a result of economic activity, price-induced efficiency measures, and technological change. Energy resources models changes in the amounts of three non-renewable energy resources -- coal, oil, and natural gas -- as a result of depletion and new discoveries. Energy economics, the largest of the energy sector components, models investment into the maximum production capacities for primary energy and electricity, based on market forces or the prescriptions of policy makers. Energy production represents the supply portion of the energy sector by producing primary (heat) and secondary (electrical) energy to meet energy demands; six electricity production technologies are included, and other options can be added relatively easily. Finally, energy emissions calculates the carbon emissions resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels to meet energy demands, and includes important non-energy processes such as cement production and natural gas flaring.

 

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