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It won’t happen to me” is a widely found syndrome. It is a tendency we observe more particularly in cases of extreme misfortune, especially in the face of  major disasters and accidents. While discussing possibility of such occurrences, the first thought in the minds of most of people, whereas very few think otherwise and accept, “Yes, it could happen to me.

 

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Imagine a situation where you and your vehicle are all set for a perfect smooth drive but you have no clue of your destination? Most probably, you will not able to even start your journey. Now just flip the situation where you are intending to go, you have drawn a map and have full realization of travel requirements but you have neither a car nor the fuel to translate your travel plan into actuality.

 

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Super-typhoon Haiyan (known locally as Yolanda) tore through the Philippines exactly one year ago, devastating thousands of lives and leaving millions of people homeless. It was the strongest typhoon to make landfall ever recorded, causing a storm surge that ripped through coastal neighbourhoods and agricultural lands across much of central Philippines. The international humanitarian community responded quickly and most generously to the humanitarian needs in the wake of Haiyan. While the scale of the disaster was in many ways unprecedented, Asia is already the most disaster-prone region in the world, and worryingly, the impacts of these disasters are growing. In the most recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessment, scientists foresaw, with high confidence, that "extreme climate events will have an increasing impact on human health, security, livelihoods, and poverty, with the type and magnitude of impact varying across Asia.

 

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A number of contributors provided valuable input during the preparation of this report. We would like to thank the Sindh Coastal Development Authority, the District Government of Badin, NDMA, PDMA Sindh, Laar Humanitarian and Development Program, and the Global Change Impact Studies Center. Our Colleagues at Oxfam Novib provided wonderful support by facilitating overall coordination and management during the process. We sincerely thank all the men and women that spared their time and participated in the community group discussions in different areas of Badin.

 

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Disaster risk reduction is the preparation and application of policies, strategies and practices to minimize vulnerabilities and hence disaster risk throughout society. It is the concept and practice of reducing disaster risks through systematic efforts to analyze and manage the causal factors of disasters, including through reduced exposure to hazards, lessened vulnerability of people and property, wise management of land and the environment, and improved preparedness for adverse events.

 

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Disaster Management is a collective term encompassing all aspects of planning for, preparing and responding to disasters and refers to the management of the consequences of disasters and includes all the pre and post disaster interventions.

 

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Large fluctuations in energy prices have been a distinguishing characteristic of the U.S. economy since the 1970s. Turmoil in the Middle East, rising energy prices in the U.S. and evidence of global warming recently have reignited interest in the link between energy prices and economic performance. This paper addresses a number of the key issues in this debate: What are energy price shocks and where do they come from? How responsive is energy demand to changes in energy prices? How do consumers’ expenditure patterns evolve in response to energy price shocks? How do energy price shocks affect real output, inflation, stock markets and the balance-of-payments? Why do energy price increases seem to cause recessions, but energy price decreases do not seem to cause expansions? Why has there been a surge in gasoline prices in recent years? Why has this new energy price shock not caused a recession so far? Have the effects of energy price shocks waned since the 1980s and, if so, why? As the paper demonstrates, it is critical to account for the endogeneity of energy prices and to differentiate between the effects of demand and supply shocks in energy markets, when answering these questions.

 

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This was a case study to observe the environmental pollution of pulp and paper mill with respect to human health problems. A pulp and paper mill namely Vamasdhara at Srikakulam (Andhra Pradesh, India) was visited for observation, data collection and sample analysis for various pollution parameters like pH, suspended solids, total solids, COD and BOD. Samples were collected from different units (viz. black liquor from slant screen, brown stock washers (BSW)-1, paper machine back water, thickner filterate, inlet to effluent treatment plant (ETPin), outlet to effluent treatment plant (ETPout) or final discharge) of the mill. Five samples for each site analyzed in duplicate and averages were taken. General health information of a total of 135 mill workers was also observed and obtained through questionnaire/ interview schedule. Mill has high pollution parameters. pH, suspended solids (g/l), total solids (g/l), COD (Mg/l) and BOD5 (Mg/l) for inlet and outlet to ETP are respectively 7.85, 1.83, 7.96, 1744, 686 and 8.3, 1.25, 4.63, 546, 329. Environmental toxicity specially water toxicity due to some of the hazardous pollutants have more effect on health. Hair loss from hands and fingers without nails (partially and fully) and other dermal problems like rashes and itching on hands were noticed in 9 out of 15 workers at secondary fibre recovery plant of the mill. Improvement in design, processing and advancement in eco-friendly technology will not only improve the productivity of mill but the community health also through better utilization of resources, waste disposal and water treatment generated by pulp and paper industry. Further intervention and research is required or development of water supply surveillance and strategies for improvement in environment and community health.

 

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The Climate Vulnerability Index (CVI) is based on a framework which incorporates a wide range of issues. It is a holistic methodology for water resources evaluation in keeping with the sustainable livelihoods approach used by many donor organisations to evaluate development progress. The scores of the index range on a scale of 0 to 100, with the total being generated as a weighted average of six major components. Each of the components is also scored from 0 to 100. Values representing the CVI components in the present are determined on the basis of quantitative and qualitative data, and potential future changes are assessed using scenarios of climate and other forms of global change.

 

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It has become common knowledge that the poor are likely to be hit hardest by climate change, and that capacity to respond to climate change is lowest in developing countries and among the poorest people in those countries. It seems clear that vulnerability to climate change is closely related to poverty, as the poor are least able to respond to climatic stimuli. Furthermore, certain regions of the world are more severely affected by the effects of climate change than others. Generally speaking, vulnerability and adaptation to climate change are urgent issues among many developing countries. For this reason, there exist provisions in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) to assist those countries that are thought to be most vulnerable and least able to adapt.

 

 

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