Imagine a situation where you and your vehicle are all set for a perfect smooth drive but you have no clue of your destination? Most probably, you will not able to even start your journey. Now just flip the situation where you are intending to go, you have drawn a map and have full realization of travel requirements but you have neither a car nor the fuel to translate your travel plan into actuality.
Disaster risk reduction is the preparation and application of policies, strategies and practices to minimize vulnerabilities and hence disaster risk throughout society. It is the concept and practice of reducing disaster risks through systematic efforts to analyze and manage the causal factors of disasters, including through reduced exposure to hazards, lessened vulnerability of people and property, wise management of land and the environment, and improved preparedness for adverse events.
This was a case study to observe the environmental pollution of pulp and paper mill with respect to human health problems. A pulp and paper mill namely Vamasdhara at Srikakulam (Andhra Pradesh, India) was visited for observation, data collection and sample analysis for various pollution parameters like pH, suspended solids, total solids, COD and BOD. Samples were collected from different units (viz. black liquor from slant screen, brown stock washers (BSW)-1, paper machine back water, thickner filterate, inlet to effluent treatment plant (ETPin), outlet to effluent treatment plant (ETPout) or final discharge) of the mill. Five samples for each site analyzed in duplicate and averages were taken. General health information of a total of 135 mill workers was also observed and obtained through questionnaire/ interview schedule. Mill has high pollution parameters. pH, suspended solids (g/l), total solids (g/l), COD (Mg/l) and BOD5 (Mg/l) for inlet and outlet to ETP are respectively 7.85, 1.83, 7.96, 1744, 686 and 8.3, 1.25, 4.63, 546, 329. Environmental toxicity specially water toxicity due to some of the hazardous pollutants have more effect on health. Hair loss from hands and fingers without nails (partially and fully) and other dermal problems like rashes and itching on hands were noticed in 9 out of 15 workers at secondary fibre recovery plant of the mill. Improvement in design, processing and advancement in eco-friendly technology will not only improve the productivity of mill but the community health also through better utilization of resources, waste disposal and water treatment generated by pulp and paper industry. Further intervention and research is required or development of water supply surveillance and strategies for improvement in environment and community health.
The Climate Vulnerability Index (CVI) is based on a framework which incorporates a wide range of issues. It is a holistic methodology for water resources evaluation in keeping with the sustainable livelihoods approach used by many donor organisations to evaluate development progress. The scores of the index range on a scale of 0 to 100, with the total being generated as a weighted average of six major components. Each of the components is also scored from 0 to 100. Values representing the CVI components in the present are determined on the basis of quantitative and qualitative data, and potential future changes are assessed using scenarios of climate and other forms of global change.
In March 2010 Fonterra released the results of an 18-month study into the carbon footprint of its major dairy ingredient and consumer products. Fonterra’s work was part funded by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, and was undertaken by the University of New South Wales, SCION and AgResearch.
This paper shows the extent to which people in Funafuti – the main island of Tuvalu – are intending to migrate in response to climate change. It presents evidence collected from Funafuti to challenge the widely held assumption that climate change is, will, or should result in large-scale migration from Tuvalu. It shows that for most people climate change is not a reason for concern, let alone a reason to migrate, and that would-be migrants do not cite climate change as a reason to leave. People in Funafuti wish to remain living in Funafuti for reasons of lifestyle, culture and identity. Concerns about the impacts of climate change are not currently a significant driver of migration from Funafuti, and do not appear to be a significant influence on those who intend to migrate in the future.
Climate change is a global phenomenon and a challenging reality for thinkers, planners, policymakers and professionals alike. It is a phenomenon that is likely to impact almost every sector of Pakistan’s economy. Today it stands not only as a major environmental issue but also as a multi-dimensional developmental issue. It was in this backdrop that the Planning Commission of Pakistan set up a ‘Task Force on Climate Change’ (TFCC) in October 2008 to provide appropriate guidelines for ensuring security of vital resources of the country such as food, water and energy. The key task assigned to the TFCC was to contribute to the formulation of a climate change policy that would assist the government in pursuing the paramount goal of sustained economic growth by appropriately addressing the challenges posed by the climate change.
Over the last thirty plus years the use of transferable permits to control pollution has evolved from little more than an academic curiosity to the centerpiece of the US program to control acid rain and international programs to control greenhouse gases. What explains this rather remarkable transition? How was the approach shaped by economic theory and empirical research?
As concern increases over the impacts of climate change, policymakers are seeking cost effective ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, which do not undermine the achievement of development objectives. The carbon market, which equates to over US$100 billion annually, is an important part of this quest as it allows those with high costs of abatement to pay others with lower costs to undertake emission-reducing activities. In this way, the overall costs of reducing emissions at a global level can be considerably lowered. As many of these low cost emission reduction opportunities are in developing countries, carbon projects could be beneficial for development as well as for addressing climate change. Carbon projects could offer a way of tapping into additional funds to finance development programs.
The report has been made possible by the support provided by GEF through UNEP under the project “GF/2200-97-57; Pakistan: Enabling Activities for the preparation of Initial National Communication related to UN Framework Convention on Climate Change”. The project was initiated in 1999 and the execution and implementation of the project was undertaken by the Federal Ministry of Environment (MOE). The report attempts to provide a detailed analysis of issues confronting the Pakistani climate change planners. The process itself has been very consultative and has spanned a period of three years during which numerous stakeholders from the public, private sector, civil society and academia were consulted.
The preparatory process involved expert work undertaken by a consortium of specially constituted National Study Team for providing the necessary outputs as per laid down technical criteria provided for in the contract agreement between Government of Pakistan and UNEP. The project was provided policy guidance by a high-powered Project Steering Committee (PSC) chaired by the Secretary, Ministry of Environment and comprising government and private sector experts in the area of climate change. The PSC held six meetings during the course of this study and four workshops were organized. A sub-committee was constituted and authorized by the PSC in February 2003 to undertake a consultative process of reviewing the final draft report presented to the PSC and compile Pakistan’s initial national communication in light of the comments received from different stakeholders and the guidelines attached to Decision 10/CP2. Pakistan’s initial national communication finalized by the Sub-Committee was approved by the PSC in its meeting on 3rd November, 2003.