The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established by World Meteorological Organization and United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) in 1988 to assess scientific, technical, and socioeconomic information that is relevant in understanding human-induced climate change, its potential impacts, and options for mitigation and adaptation. The IPCC currently is organized into three Working Groups: Working Group I (WGI) addresses observed and projected changes in climate; Working Group II (WGII) addresses vulnerability, impacts, and adaptation related to climate change; and Working Group III (WGIII) addresses options for mitigation of climate change.
This volume—Climate Change 2001: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability—is the WGII contribution to the IPCC’s Third Assessment Report (TAR) on scientific, technical, environmental, economic, and social issues associated with the climate system and climate change. 1 WGII’s mandate for the T AR is to assess the vulnerability of ecological systems, socioeconomic sectors, and human health to climate change as well as potential impacts of climate change, positive and negative, on these systems. This assessment also examines the feasibility of adaptation to enhance the positive effects of climate change and ameliorate negative effects. This new assessment builds on previous IPCC assessments, reexamining key findings of earlier assessments and emphasizing new information and implications from more recent studies.
This chapter synthesizes the results of Work Group II of the Third Assessment Report (TAR) and assesses the state of knowledge concerning Article 2 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The TAR’s task is to define what is known about the effects of climate change: how sensitive systems are, what adaptive capacity they have, and what their vulnerability is. It is not the goal of this assessment to determine whether these effects are tolerable or are considered dangerous.
The goal of this chapter is to synthesize information on climate change impacts in a manner that will enable readers to evaluate the relationship between increases in global mean temperature and impacts. The chapter focuses on certain “reasons for concern” that may aid readers in making their own determination about what is a “dangerous” climate change. Each reason for concern is consistent with a paradigm that can be used by itself or in combination with other paradigms to help determine what level of climate change is dangerous.
National Economic & Environmental Development Study (NEEDS)
Malik Amin Aslam Khan
Dr. Pervaiz Amir (LEAD)
Shakeel Ahmad Ramay (SDPI)
Zuhair Munawar (SDPI )
Dr.Vaqar Ahmad (SDPI)
Climate change is today an inescapable reality for Pakistan and is beginning to manifest itself through increasing intensity and ferocity. Pakistan is a country which, owing to its particular geographical circumstances, is highly impacted by any changes in climate making it one of the most vulnerable countries. Yet, it is one of the smallest contributors to the problem of climate change and can, thus, be termed one of the worst victims of “climate injustice”.
Dealing with climate change is no longer a choice for the country – it is an imperative which it has to cope with and adapt to in the foreseeable future. The country does not have the luxury of an “exit” strategy when it comes to facing up to the climate challenge. The costs associated with this interaction need to be estimated to a reasonable degree of accuracy to allow the country to plan, strategize and prepare for this challenge.
As stated, Pakistan is one of the lowest contributors to this global problem but, nevertheless, it has played a leading role in trying to formulate global consensus in addressing this issue demanding collective cooperation. Also, the country is cognizant of its development priorities and is actively seeking both, financial and technological support, to place its undeniable future growth on to a low carbon trajectory.
A District Level Climate Change Vulnerability Index of Pakistan
Arif Rahman Aneel Salman
In the wake of devolution and decentralisation in Pakistan there is a greater need to devise localised vulnerability to climate change indices as an easy reference for both policy-makers and the development sector. While global vulnerability indices are commercially motivated and based on country leveldata, ranking the degree of vulnerability to climate change across nations represents a ‘number’ aimed at directing, inter alia, development, disaster and aid efforts among countries.
These indices however, fail to highlight subnational vulnerabilities existing within countries being ranked.
Using the IPCC’s definitions of vulnerability in the context of climate change as a reference source, this study devises a district level vulnerability to climate change index for 22 districts of Pakistan. The Index shows that there exists a varying degree of vulnerability between districts and a further variation across the rural and urban divide of each district.
Climate Data and Modelling Analysis of the Indus Ecoregion
Dr. Ghulam Rasul
Adaptation to climate change and building resilience among ecosystems and peoples to respond to climate variability and hazard threats are relatively new concepts. For this reason, networks for sharing experiences and ideas, especially between delta areas, will have a fundamental role in helping to address adaptation within specific ecosystems or sites. As well as regional collaboration, facilitating support from multi-lateral and bilateral donor agencies is crucial to enable on-going implementation climate change actions and improved governance, especially of water resources.
In January 2011, WWF Pakistan started a 5 year project with funds from the European Union’s ‘Environment and Natural Resource Thematic Program’ budget line (ENRTP). The project title is “Building Capacity on Climate Change Adaptation in Coastal Areas of Pakistan (CCAP)”.
Building Capacity on Climate Change Adaptation in the Coastal Areas of Pakistan (CCAP)
Nadia Bajwa andAli Dehlavi,World Wide Fund for Nature – Pakistan
The “Building Capacity on Climate Change Adaptation in the Coastal Areas of Pakistan”(CCAP) is a WWF-P project, jointly administered with partners LEAD-Pakistan and WWF-K, and with associates in India, Bangladesh and Iran who help cover Dasht and Sundarbans deltas besides the Indus.We are grateful to consultants and institutions whose work we commissioned and oversaw over the course of 2011-2012. The findings of their studies are synthesized in this report and we are grateful to them for participating wholeheartedly in path correction meetings and addressing reviewer comments. WWF Network colleagues and others who lent their expertise to the development of methodology – and also collaborated in fieldwork – are thanked by name in this synthesis report.
We would also like to thank stakeholders who participated in the Synthesis Report consultative provincial level consultative workshop in Karachi on 29 December 2012.
Further, we appreciate organisations such as SDPI, IUCN, UNDP, among others who took out the time to fill out a survey monkey questionnaire.
We would also like to thank Ms. Zubaida Birwani from Trust for Conservation of Coastal Resources (TCCR) for contributing PRK 85,000 for the construction of a fresh water pond at village Qadir Baksh Baloch, Kharo Chan. We would like to take this opportunity to invite other stakeholders to contribute towards CCAP's interventions.
Energy Crisis In Pakistan, Adaptation And Mitigation Measures
A.G. Bhatti, A.R. Bhatti, I.A. Chaudry, M.N. Javed
1Electrical Engineering Department, GC University Faisalabad
2Electrical Engineering Department, GC University Faisalabad
3Mechanical Engineering Department, UET Lahore
4The Crescent Textile Mills Limited Faisalabad
Energy is part and parcel of every aspect of life as well as backbone of a country’s economy. Pakistan is lagging behind in this area despite of rich reserves of raw energy, but there is dire need for the investment and proper use of these reserves for driving the wheel of economy. Present energy scenario of the country, its available resources and their potential towards the solution are addressed in this paper. Statistical data in this work provides ease to policy makers in deciding major investment area to take the country towards prosperous future. A lot of partial projects like Independent Power Producers (IPPs) and Rental Power Plants (RPPs) have been made and invested but all in vain rather burden on economy. The sequence of investment field is also proposed which will pay back more in the long run.
Task Force on Climate Change-Government of Pakistan
Final Report (2010)
Climate change is a global phenomenon and a challenging reality for thinkers, planners, policymakers and professionals alike. It is a phenomenon that is likely to impact almost every sector of Pakistan’s economy. Today it stands not only as a major environmental issue but also as a multi-dimensional developmental issue. It was in this backdrop that the Planning Commission of Pakistan set up a ‘Task Force on Climate Change’ (TFCC) in October 2008 to provide appropriate guidelines for ensuring security of vital resources of the country such as food, water and energy. The key task assigned to the TFCC was to contribute to the formulation of a climate change policy that would assist the government in pursuing the paramount goal of sustained economic growth by appropriately addressing the challenges posed by the climate change.
The present report is the final outcome of the TFCC effort. It is the result of 10 TFCC meetings involving extensive deliberations by the TFCC Members on various climate change related issues confronting Pakistan and draws upon the expert inputs on specific topics prepared by nine Working Groups set up by the Task Force. The report describes Pakistan’s vulnerability to climate change due to impacts on various socio-economic sectors. It recommends a number of adaptation and mitigation measures based on the initial available assessment of different sectors and reviews the country’s implicit ongoing and planned responses. It also provides recommendations on issues such as much needed capacity building, needs for international cooperation and Pakistan’s position in international negotiations on future climate change regime. It is hoped this report will serve as a seminal document, providing a base for further work and helping the Planning Commission and the Ministry of Environment in the formulation of National Climate Change.
Water Supply and Sanitation Situation in Selected Areas Of Murree Hills
Murree is undoubtedly the most attractive area of Pakistan for tourists due to its scenery; its moderately cold weather, its glamorous mountainous terrain fully covered with marvellous trees and being the wettest part of the Pakistan makes it seriously an area where water supply and sanitation are really important. River Jehlum, hundreds of streams and waterfalls and countless springs can make anyone think that Murree is surely a place where water supply can never be an issue. In my opinion, usually things don’t turn out the way they are ideally expected. Unfortunately Murree is facing water supply and sanitation problems. Due to high number of tourists Murree is full of hotels, flats and accommodations for visitors. To earn more money, the owners of these accommodations mainly focus on supplying water to the tourists. This hinders the locals to get benefits of the vast amount of water that is already available in murree. The corrupt political system of Pakistan is another drawback for the water supply and sanitation situation of Murree. It is a matter of fact that the administration of Murree is unable to focus on the water supply and sanitation situation. The purpose of this study was to get an accurate idea of this problem by conducting a survey that records several aspects from three carefully selected locations of Murree. These locations were conclusive of a market side location that was Aliyot Village, a village settlement that was kurbagla Village and a planned settlement which was the main Murree City. This survey consisted of semistructured interviews from all these respective locations with a 100 interview from each of the three locations.
Up in smoke? Asia and the Pacific
The threat from climate change to human development and the environment
R K Pachauri, Ph.D, Chairman of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change