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Water (11)

Global Climate Change (CC) resulting from an increasing concentration of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere has become an accepted and major theme in today‘s world.  According to the Intergovernmental Panel  on  Climate Change (IPCC), the average temperature of the earth increased by 0.6 ° C over the last century and it is expected to further increase by 1.4 to 5.8 º C by the end of the current century. These changes in temperature are but the crest of the many environmental, social  and  political  issues  which  will  follow in  the  wake of  the changing climate. Unfortunately the major causes of a rapidly warming climate can be attributed to anthropogenic activities such as the burning of fuel, the depletion of forests and changes in land use (conversion of forest into agriculture land).


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The effects of climate change and industrial pollution are joining to thicken the toxic blanket over South Asia as well as disperse pollution globally, maybe even affecting the monsoon


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Pakistan’s draft National Water Policy looks to a future dominated by the impacts of climate change, advocates water pricing and highlights regional cooperation challenges


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Land reform is probably one of the most difficult domestic policy issues to be dealt with by Zimbabwe, Namibia, South Africa and Australia. In each of these countries the process of land reform is incomplete. Zimbabwe, on one side of the spectrum, is facing a crisis in democratization due to its radical approach to land reform. On the other side of the spectrum is Australia which, as a stable and respected democracy, has difficulty explaining why the land needs of sucha small minority of its people cannot be dealt with more effectively. In between there is Namibia, where the winds of change and the pressure to ‘radicalise’land reform are increasing. And then there is South Africa where systems and policies to deal with land reform are probably the most advanced from a legal perspective, but where the resources, patience and other practical issues to execute reform effectively are becoming serious hurdles in implementing policies.


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Agriculture accounts for around a fifth of the national output in Pakistan, and the crop farming sector within agriculture is responsible for less than a tenth of the gross domestic product.1 landlessness remains a key but not the predominant correlate of rural poverty.2 formal sector employment now has as strong an impact on rural incomes as access to land, but the social and political power associated with land ownership can be critical in gaining access to rationed public resources including government jobs.3land ownership is highly unequal both in terms of the prevalence of landlessness, and in the concentration of land in relatively large sized ownership holdings. Around half of all rural households do not own any land, and the top 5 per cent own over a third of all cultivated area.



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Following initial enthusiasm in the post-war period, land reform fell out of favour with donors from the early 1970s. Nonetheless, sporadic efforts to redistribute land continued: Ethiopia in 1975, Zimbabwe in 1980 and a renewed commitment to land reform in the Philippines in 1988. These reforms stemmed from shifts in the domestic balance of power between landowners and landless workers and peasants, which were quite independent of donor policies.



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The study of rural factor markets would include investigation of the working of land market, determination of rent, employment of labour and determination of wages, behaviour of investment in capital assets including inputs such as irrigation, farm machinery and credit. In this paper our main focus is on the study of working of the land market-sales and lease and analysis of land values. It should be noted that two factors are important to form land market; private ownership of land and the economic value of land ownership. Land reforms by the state to further the objective of efficient use of resources is a non-market solution. The characteristic, design and implementation of land reforms are decisively influenced by the political motives of the introducers of land reforms. While positive impact of land reforms on poverty are obvious, it is unrealistic to expect that the government dominated by landlords can introduce and implement drastic land reforms that would lead to a reduction of their socio-economic foundation of power. Land reforms by the landed elite are introduced to satisfy the pressures exerted by the peasants and furthering the legitimacy of their government. Consequently, the implementation of land reform is often tardy. However, to the extent land reforms are implemented, it adds to the development of land market in the shape of increased private ownership spread widely and security of land leases and/or share cropping management. A well-functioning land market can provide access to land to any economic agent for agricultural production provided he or she has also access to complementary inputs like labour, water, fertilizer etc. In this sense, working of markets for land and other factors should need to be jointly studied. However, we shall concentrate on the working of land market and would only briefly refer to the issues of inter-linkages with other factor markets. An attempt shall be made to determine the nature of land market as to how far it approximates the ideal of competitive market. If this ideal is not attained in practice, it is interesting to find out what explanations could be relevant by way of institutional management, transaction costs and government interventions in the land markets.



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Climate resilience and disaster risk management

Stories of change from CDKN

First-of-a-kind action plan will protect Indian residents from extreme heat

When temperatures soared in the Western Indian city of Ahmedabad three years ago, the tin-roofed homes of the city’s slum dwellers became deadly. Built as humble shelters from the rain, these fragile structures turned into solar ovens in the heatwave. They trapped and concentrated the sun’s energy on the unsuspecting residents beneath. During May 2010, government meteorological stations recorded a high of 46.8o C (116oF) in the outside air temperature; the Indian Institute of Public Health (IIPH) found that death rates were ‘substantially’ above normal.

The disaster shook local government – not least because the event appeared to be part of a longer term trend. Daily high temperatures have risen in Western India during recent decades, and hot days are set to become more frequent and intense as climate change continues. The city’s administration joined forces with an international coalition of health and academic groups and threw its efforts into developing the Ahmedabad Heat Action Plan. Launched this month and part-funded by CDKN, the Action Plan is the first comprehensive plan of its kind in India, to prepare urban residents for and make the city more resilient to dangerous heatwaves.


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Adaptation policy and practice in densely populated glacier-fed river basins of South Asia: a systematic review

Water Resources in South Asia: An Assessment of Climate Change associated Vulnerabilities and Coping Mechanisms

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