This was a case study to observe the environmental pollution of pulp and paper mill with respect to human health problems. A pulp and paper mill namely Vamasdhara at Srikakulam (Andhra Pradesh, India) was visited for observation, data collection and sample analysis for various pollution parameters like pH, suspended solids, total solids, COD and BOD. Samples were collected from different units (viz. black liquor from slant screen, brown stock washers (BSW)-1, paper machine back water, thickner filterate, inlet to effluent treatment plant (ETPin), outlet to effluent treatment plant (ETPout) or final discharge) of the mill. Five samples for each site analyzed in duplicate and averages were taken. General health information of a total of 135 mill workers was also observed and obtained through questionnaire/ interview schedule. Mill has high pollution parameters. pH, suspended solids (g/l), total solids (g/l), COD (Mg/l) and BOD5 (Mg/l) for inlet and outlet to ETP are respectively 7.85, 1.83, 7.96, 1744, 686 and 8.3, 1.25, 4.63, 546, 329. Environmental toxicity specially water toxicity due to some of the hazardous pollutants have more effect on health. Hair loss from hands and fingers without nails (partially and fully) and other dermal problems like rashes and itching on hands were noticed in 9 out of 15 workers at secondary fibre recovery plant of the mill. Improvement in design, processing and advancement in eco-friendly technology will not only improve the productivity of mill but the community health also through better utilization of resources, waste disposal and water treatment generated by pulp and paper industry. Further intervention and research is required or development of water supply surveillance and strategies for improvement in environment and community health.
Climate change is a global phenomenon and a challenging reality for thinkers, planners, policymakers and professionals alike. It is a phenomenon that is likely to impact almost every sector of Pakistan’s economy. Today it stands not only as a major environmental issue but also as a multi-dimensional developmental issue. It was in this backdrop that the Planning Commission of Pakistan set up a ‘Task Force on Climate Change’ (TFCC) in October 2008 to provide appropriate guidelines for ensuring security of vital resources of the country such as food, water and energy. The key task assigned to the TFCC was to contribute to the formulation of a climate change policy that would assist the government in pursuing the paramount goal of sustained economic growth by appropriately addressing the challenges posed by the climate change.
Are global temperatures on a warming trend? It is di¢ cult to be certain about trends when there is so much variation in the data and very high correlation from year to year. We investigate the question using statistical time series methods. Our analysis shows that the upward movement over the last 130-160 years is persistent and not explained by the high correlation, so it is best described as a trend. The warming trend becomes steeper after the mid-1970s, but there is no signi cant evidence for a break in trend in the late 1990s. Viewed from the perspective of 30 or 50 years ago, the temperatures recorded in most of the last decade lie above the con dence band of forecasts produced by a model that does not allow for a warming trend.
What are the major determinants of green growth? What role can the government play to promote green growth? To address these questions, this paper develops a simple Green Solow model that sheds light on the role of finance and technology in the process of green growth. The empirical section of the article augments this canonical green growth model to include structural variables relating to finance, technological development, trade openness, natural resource exploitations, and areas where the government can play an important role. In addition, the use of the spatially-corrected generalized method moments approach affords us to explore the role of such factors as growth performance of the neighboring countries, domestic learning or determination to achieve its national desired target, and political and economic shocks in the process of green growth. It is hoped that research reported in the paper will stimulate further research in the area.
Around 50% of people, almost all in developing countries, rely on coal and biomass in the form of wood, dung and crop residues for domestic energy. These materials are typically burnt in simple stoves with very incomplete combustion. Consequently, women and young children are exposed to high levels of indoor air pollution every day. There is consistent evidence that indoor air pollution increases the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and of acute respiratory infections in childhood, the most important cause of death among children under 5 years of age in developing countries. Evidence also exists of associations with low birth weight, increased infant and perinatal mortality, pulmonary tuberculosis, nasopharyngeal and laryngeal cancer, cataract, and, specifically in
respect of the use of coal, with lung cancer. Conflicting evidence exists with regard to asthma. All studies are observational and very few have measured exposure directly, while a substantial proportion have not dealt with confounding. As a result, risk estimates are poorly quantified and may be biased. Exposure to indoor air pollution may be responsible for nearly 2 million excess deaths in developing countries and for some 4% of the global burden of disease. Indoor air pollution is a major global public health threat requiring greatly increased efforts in the areas of research and policy-making. Research on its health effects should be strengthened, particularly in relation to tuberculosis and acute lower respiratory infections. A more systematic approach to the development and evaluation of interventions is desirable, with clearer recognition of the interrelationships between poverty and dependence on polluting fuels.
Scientific research throughout the past decades has demonstrated how climatic changes have important impacts on the livelihoods of people around the world. For most of developing countries their level of structural and social vulnerability, are a dangerous combination and a formula for impacts of higher magnitude. Therefore, climatic phenomenon such as tropical storms, floods and droughts, more often become tragedies in these countries. This paper analyzes the impacts of such phenomenon in the human development of people across the world. Some of the climate change related issues analyzed in this parte are: Droughts and water security, tropical cyclones and storms, rising tides, warming seas, coral bleaching, fish stocks, melting glaciers, heat waves and cold spells and the impact on human health are discussed in this paper along with the differentiated impact on countries in various levels of human development is also discussed.
The Torreya Guardians are trying to save the Florida torreya (Torreya taxifolia Arn.) from extinction (Barlow & Martin 2004). Fewer than 1000 individuals of this coniferous tree remain within its native distribution, a 35-km stretch of the Apalachicola River, and these trees are not reproducing (Schwartz et al. 2000). Even if the Florida torreya was not declining toward extinction, the species would be at risk from climate change. Warming is projected to either significantly reduce or eliminate suitable habitat for most narrowly endemic taxa (Thomas et al. 2004; Hannah et al. 2005; Peterson et al. 2006), forcing species to colonize new terrain to survive.
The focus of the Torreya Guardians is an “assisted migration” program that would introduce seedlings to forests across the Southern Appalachians and Cumberland Plateau (http://www.TorreyaGuardians.org). Their intent is to avert extinction by deliberately expanding the range of this endangered plant over 500 km northward. Because planting endangered plants in new environments is relatively simple as long as seeds are legally acquired and planted with landowner permission, the Torreya Guardians believe their efforts are justified. Introducing this species to regions where it has not existed for 65 million years is “[e]asy, legal, and cheap” (Barlow & Martin 2004).
Mobilizing Change Through Leadership Development and Reproductive Health Initiative
Dr. Ayesha Khan
LEAD Pakistan with funding from Packard choices and economic empowerment of women Foundation, initiated a project” Enabling and adolescent girls. The ultimate goal is to Effective District Leadership for Reproductive maximize individual well being in multiple Health” in districts Lodhran (Punjab) and dimensions – empowerment, informed choices, Khairpur (Sindh) with the primary objectives of and social change-to realize their full potential. improving reproductive health outcomes In reviewing the three broad areas: 1) through addressing), two critical gaps – 1) the Leadership development beyond literacy alone, Capacity gap i.e absence of local expertise and 2) Empowerment and what works, and 3) Male understanding of RH issues and how to address engagement in sharing RH decision making, it is them systematically, and 2) the Governance gap often difficult to draw clear linear associations i.e. poor planning, lack of evidence informed between interventions and the complex d e c i s i o n ma k i n g , a n d a b s e n ce o f outcomes. In simple terms the lessons can be communication between decision makers and summarized as information is the first step to the beneficiary communities. Key activities of enabling change, regardless of the social the LRH II focused on training illiterate girls as girl environment without adequate information and leaders, diverse mid-level professionals as the requisite skills and capacities, individuals cohort leaders, cohort action teams, and village and communities cannot move forward. assemblies all working together along with Secondly, more than their male counterparts capacity building and advocacy at the district girls must have access to skill trainings, government and evidence generation on RH livelihood and income generation and sustained issues.