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Climate change is a global phenomenon and a challenging reality for thinkers, planners, policymakers and professionals alike. It is a phenomenon that is likely to impact almost every sector of Pakistan’s economy. Today it stands not only as a major environmental issue but also as a multi-dimensional developmental issue. It was in this backdrop that the Planning Commission of Pakistan set up a ‘Task Force on Climate Change’ (TFCC) in October 2008 to provide appropriate guidelines for ensuring security of vital resources of the country such as food, water and energy. The key task assigned to the TFCC was to contribute to the formulation of a climate change policy that would assist the government in pursuing the paramount goal of sustained economic growth by appropriately addressing the challenges posed by the climate change.

 

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As concern increases over the impacts of climate change, policymakers are seeking cost effective ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, which do not undermine the achievement of development objectives. The carbon market, which equates to over US$100 billion annually, is an important part of this quest as it allows those with high costs of abatement to pay others with lower costs to undertake emission-reducing activities. In this way, the overall costs of reducing emissions at a global level can be considerably lowered. As many of these low cost emission reduction opportunities are in developing countries, carbon projects could be beneficial for development as well as for addressing climate change. Carbon projects could offer a way of tapping into additional funds to finance development programs. 

 

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The report has been made possible by the support provided by GEF through UNEP under the project “GF/2200-97-57; Pakistan: Enabling Activities for the preparation of Initial National Communication related to UN Framework Convention on Climate Change”. The project was initiated in 1999 and the execution and implementation of the project was undertaken by the Federal Ministry of Environment (MOE). The report attempts to provide a detailed analysis of issues confronting the Pakistani climate change planners. The process itself has been very consultative and has spanned a period of three years during which numerous stakeholders from the public, private sector, civil society and academia were consulted.
The preparatory process involved expert work undertaken by a consortium of specially constituted National Study Team for providing the necessary outputs as per laid down technical criteria provided for in the contract agreement between Government of Pakistan and UNEP. The project was provided policy guidance by a high-powered Project Steering Committee (PSC) chaired by the Secretary, Ministry of Environment and comprising government and private sector experts in the area of climate change. The PSC held six meetings during the course of this study and four workshops were organized. A sub-committee was constituted and authorized by the PSC in February 2003 to undertake a consultative process of reviewing the final draft report presented to the PSC and compile Pakistan’s initial national communication in light of the comments received from different stakeholders and the guidelines attached to Decision 10/CP2. Pakistan’s initial national communication finalized by the Sub-Committee was approved by the PSC in its meeting on 3rd November, 2003.

 

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Are global temperatures on a warming trend? It is di¢ cult to be certain about trends when there is so much variation in the data and very high correlation from year to year. We investigate the question using statistical time series methods. Our analysis shows that the upward movement over the last 130-160 years is persistent and not explained by the high correlation, so it is best described as a trend. The warming trend becomes steeper after the mid-1970s, but there is no signi…cant evidence for a break in trend in the late 1990s. Viewed from the perspective of 30 or 50 years ago, the temperatures recorded in most of the last decade lie above the con…dence band of forecasts produced by a model that does not allow for a warming trend.

 

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What are the major determinants of green growth? What role can the government play to promote green growth? To address these questions, this paper develops a simple Green Solow model that sheds light on the role of finance and technology in the process of green growth. The empirical section of the article augments this canonical green growth model to include structural variables relating to finance, technological development, trade openness, natural resource exploitations, and areas where the government can play an important role. In addition, the use of the spatially-corrected generalized method moments approach affords us to explore the role of such factors as growth performance of the neighboring countries, domestic learning or determination to achieve its national desired target, and political and economic shocks in the process of green growth. It is hoped that research reported in the paper will stimulate further research in the area.

 

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London and New York are the world’s pre-eminent financial centers. They are essential in processing the financial transactions of the global economy. The circumstances that have given rise to and maintained the preeminence of these centers are well explored in the literature. Less attention has been paid to the importance of these financial centers in organizing the complementary institutions, services, and products of functional and developing markets. This article looks at the role of London and New York, particularly the complementarity of exiting financial infrastructure, in developing a new carbon market. I argue that developing a market from existing financial infrastructure through complementarities is more efficient because it economizes on sunk costs, relies on the marginal pricing of new initiatives, and generally reduces the costs of infrastructure development. Therefore, new markets are best constructed using existing market infrastructure or by developing complementary processes within existent market systems. I investigate three levels of complementarity between (existent and new) markets and within the new carbon market: the complementarity of expertise and information, the complementarity of institutions and services, and the complementarity of market systems. Case studies constructed from expert interviews conducted with banks, brokerages, intermediaries, legal firms, consultancies, and wire services in London and New York are used to support the argument. This paper concludes by commenting on the significance of the financial service centers (geography) where the market is developed.

 

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Mitigating climate change requires the collaborative and international management of a range of socio-economic processes that produce greenhouse gas emissions. Governments in a number of regions are developing carbon markets to mitigate climate change by limiting the production of greenhouse gases. This thesis examines the construction of carbon markets in the United States and Europe to understand what role these markets play in mitigating climate change. Using a relational economic geography framework and institutional theory, I frame the markets into two components: 1) the regulatory structures which give the markets existence and bound their rules of operation, and 2) the financial and service components which operationalized the markets.

 

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Concern over the impact of anthropogenic carbon emissions on the global climate has increased in recent years due to growth in global warming awareness. Approximately 5% of global CO2 emissions originate from the manufacturing of cement, the third largest source of carbon emission in the United States. In
addition to the generation of CO2 the cement manufacturing process produces millions of tons of the waste product cement kiln dust (CKD) each year contributing to respiratory and pollution health risks. In this paper LCA is used to evaluate the environmental impact of four cement manufacturing processes:

(1) the production of traditional Portland cement,

(2) blended cement (natural pozzolans),

(3) cement where 100% of waste cement kiln dust is recycled into the kiln process, and

(4) Portland cement produced when cement kiln dust (CKD) is used to sequester a portion of the process related CO2 emissions. To reduce uncertainty this manuscript presents a cradle-to-gate life-cycle assessment of several cement products. Analysis using SimaPro 6.0 software shows that blended cements provide the greatest environmental savings followed by utilization of CKD for sequestration. The recycling of CKD was found to have little environmental savings over the traditional process.

 

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CEMBUREAU - the European Cement Association, based in Brussels, is the representative organisation for the cement industry in Europe. Its Full Members are the
national cement industry associations and cement companies of the European Union and the European Economic Area countries plus Switzerland and Turkey. Associate Members include the national cement associations of Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovak Republic and the sole cement company in Estonia.
The Association acts as spokesman for the cement sector towards the European Union institutions and other authorities, and communicates the industry’s views on all issues and policy developments likely to have an effect on the cement market in the technical, environmental, energy and promotion areas. Permanent dialogue is maintained with the European and international authorities and with other International Associations as appropriate. Serviced by a multi-national staff in Brussels, Standing Committees and issue-related Project Groups, established as required, enable CEMBUREAU to keep abreast of all developments affecting the cement industry. CEMBUREAU also plays a significant role in the world-wide promotion of cement and concrete in co-operation with member associations, and the ready-mix and precast concrete industries. The Association regularly co-hosts conferences on specific issues aimed at improving the image of concrete and promoting the use of cement and concrete products. Since its foundation in 1947, CEMBUREAU has developed into the major centre for the dissemination of technical data, statistics and general information on the cement industry world-wide. Its publications serve as the principal source of information on the cement
industry throughout the world. It is the editor of the “World Cement Directory” providing data on cement companies and works based in some 150 countries.

 

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A system dynamics model based on the dynamic interactions among a number of system components is developed to estimate CO2 emissions from the cement industry in India. The CO2 emissions are projected to reach 396.89 million tonnes by the year 2020 if the existing cement making technological options are followed. Policy options of population growth stabilisation, energy conservation and structural management in cement manufacturing processes are incorporated for developing the CO2 mitigation scenarios. A 42% reduction in the CO2 emissions can be achieved in the year 2020 based on an integrated mitigation scenario. Indirect CO2 emissions from the transport of raw materials to the cement plants and finished product to market are also estimated.

 

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