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The Climate Vulnerability Index (CVI) is based on a framework which incorporates a wide range of issues. It is a holistic methodology for water resources evaluation in keeping with the sustainable livelihoods approach used by many donor organisations to evaluate development progress. The scores of the index range on a scale of 0 to 100, with the total being generated as a weighted average of six major components. Each of the components is also scored from 0 to 100. Values representing the CVI components in the present are determined on the basis of quantitative and qualitative data, and potential future changes are assessed using scenarios of climate and other forms of global change.

 

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In March 2010 Fonterra released the results of an 18-month study into the carbon footprint of its major dairy ingredient and consumer products. Fonterra’s work was part funded by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, and was undertaken by the University of New South Wales, SCION and AgResearch.

 

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Climate change is a global phenomenon and a challenging reality for thinkers, planners, policymakers and professionals alike. It is a phenomenon that is likely to impact almost every sector of Pakistan’s economy. Today it stands not only as a major environmental issue but also as a multi-dimensional developmental issue. It was in this backdrop that the Planning Commission of Pakistan set up a ‘Task Force on Climate Change’ (TFCC) in October 2008 to provide appropriate guidelines for ensuring security of vital resources of the country such as food, water and energy. The key task assigned to the TFCC was to contribute to the formulation of a climate change policy that would assist the government in pursuing the paramount goal of sustained economic growth by appropriately addressing the challenges posed by the climate change.

 

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Over the last thirty plus years the use of transferable permits to control pollution has evolved from little more than an academic curiosity to the centerpiece of the US program to control acid rain and international programs to control greenhouse gases. What explains this rather remarkable transition? How was the approach shaped by economic theory and empirical research?

 

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Disaster risk is most detailed at a micro-social or territorial scale. As we aggregate and work at more macro scales, details are lost. However, decision-making and information needs at each level are quite different, as are the social actors and stakeholders. This means that appropriate evaluation tools are necessary to make it easy to understand the problem and guide the decision-making process. It is fundamentally important to understand how vulnerability is generated, how it increases and how it accumulates. Performance benchmarks are also needed to facilitate decision makers’ access to relevant information as well as the identification and proposal of effective policies and actions. The system of indicators proposed for the Americas permits a systematic and quantitative bench marking of each country during different periods between 1980 and 2000, as well as comparisons across countries. Four components or composite indicators have been designed to represent the main elements of vulnerability and show each country’s progress in managing risk.

 

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Climate change or global warming is an important research area now. Unless proper adaptation strategies are implemented, it will have far reaching environmental changes that could have severe impacts on societies throughout the world. Further, it will have multidimensional effect on humanity in terms of several socio-economic parameters like agriculture, human health, sea level rise, scarcity of labour, disease prevalence etc. Hence any scientific study on climate change should take into account vulnerabilities of the different regions and then it has to study its impacts on several sectors.

 

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The PNNL Vulnerability Assessment Program explores approaches for assessing the significance of potential future changes in climate for natural resources and socioeconomic systems. Research on vulnerability addresses two important challenges identified in the recent impact assessments of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (Watson et al. 1996, 1998, McCarthy et al. 2001). The first challenge is to improve approaches for comparing and aggregating impacts across diverse sectors and populations. The second challenge is to model socioeconomic transformation as well as climate change in assessing the future significance of climate change. Vulnerability assessment must account for multiple dimensions: the physical-environmental impact of changed climate; a region’s capacity to recover from extreme events and adapt to change over the longer term; and the degree to which international trade, aid and other
connections assist a region in its coping and adaptive efforts.

 

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Climate change or global warming is an important research area now. Unless proper adaptation strategies are implemented, it will have far reaching environmental changes that could have severe impacts on societies throughout the world. Further, it will have multidimensional effect on humanity in terms of several socio-economic parameters like agriculture, human health, sea level rise, scarcity of labour, disease prevalence etc. Hence any scientific study on climate change should take into account vulnerabilities of the different regions and then it has to study its impacts on several sectors.

 

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Can simple government programs effectively promote voluntary initiatives to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions? This paper provides an evaluation of how the Connecticut Clean Energy Communities program affects household decisions to voluntarily purchase “green” electricity, which is electricity generated from renewable sources of energy. The results suggest that, within participating communities, subsidizing municipal solar panels as matching grants for reaching green-electricity enrollment targets increases the number of household purchases by 35 percent. The Clean Energy Communities program thus demonstrates how mostly symbolic incentives can mobilize voluntary initiatives within communities and promote demand for renewable energy.

 

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Although much has been written about climate change and poverty as distinct and complex problems, the link between them has received little attention. Understanding this link is vital for the formulation of effective policy responses to climate change. This paper focuses on agriculture as a primary means by which the impacts of climate change are transmitted to the poor, and as a sector at the forefront of climate change mitigation efforts in developing countries. In so doing, the paper offers some important insights that may help shape future policies as well as ongoing research in this area.

 

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