Climate change is a global phenomenon and a challenging reality for thinkers, planners, policymakers and professionals alike. It is a phenomenon that is likely to impact almost every sector of Pakistan’s economy. Today it stands not only as a major environmental issue but also as a multi-dimensional developmental issue. It was in this backdrop that the Planning Commission of Pakistan set up a ‘Task Force on Climate Change’ (TFCC) in October 2008 to provide appropriate guidelines for ensuring security of vital resources of the country such as food, water and energy. The key task assigned to the TFCC was to contribute to the formulation of a climate change policy that would assist the government in pursuing the paramount goal of sustained economic growth by appropriately addressing the challenges posed by the climate change.
Are global temperatures on a warming trend? It is di¢ cult to be certain about trends when there is so much variation in the data and very high correlation from year to year. We investigate the question using statistical time series methods. Our analysis shows that the upward movement over the last 130-160 years is persistent and not explained by the high correlation, so it is best described as a trend. The warming trend becomes steeper after the mid-1970s, but there is no signi cant evidence for a break in trend in the late 1990s. Viewed from the perspective of 30 or 50 years ago, the temperatures recorded in most of the last decade lie above the con dence band of forecasts produced by a model that does not allow for a warming trend.
One of the most complex and salient questions remaining in climate change policy modeling is the appropriate treatment of technological change (TC). The approach to modeling TC is widely considered to be one of the most important determinants of the results of climate policy analyses; that is, the level of emissions abatement that can be achieved at a given cost. In this context, TC can be understood as the increase in outputs (including abatement) possible with a given level of inputs (including emissions) through the processes of invention, innovation, and diffusion. Unfortunately, the complex mechanisms by which these processes work are not captured easily in modeling frameworks, creating significant difficulties for modelers attempting to determine the effects of climate policies that inevitably are intertwined with TC in energy supply and demand technologies. In climate change policy models, endogenous technology change (ETC) implies incorporating a feedback mechanism by which policy changes the direction, and possibly the overall level, of TC toward carbon-saving technology change. This feedback occurs through channels such as energy prices, research and development (R&D), or learning through past experience. This contrasts with exogenous assumptions about the rate of overall and carbonsaving TC, which are unresponsive to policy. This paper addresses several specific questions. What are the major assumptions regarding TC in climate policy models and, more specifically, currently how is TC made endogenous? What are the advantages and disadvantages of these approaches? And finally, what can we learn from these approaches?
Concern over the impact of anthropogenic carbon emissions on the global climate has increased in recent years due to growth in global warming awareness. Approximately 5% of global CO2 emissions originate from the manufacturing of cement, the third largest source of carbon emission in the United States. In
addition to the generation of CO2 the cement manufacturing process produces millions of tons of the waste product cement kiln dust (CKD) each year contributing to respiratory and pollution health risks. In this paper LCA is used to evaluate the environmental impact of four cement manufacturing processes:
(1) the production of traditional Portland cement,
(2) blended cement (natural pozzolans),
(3) cement where 100% of waste cement kiln dust is recycled into the kiln process, and
(4) Portland cement produced when cement kiln dust (CKD) is used to sequester a portion of the process related CO2 emissions. To reduce uncertainty this manuscript presents a cradle-to-gate life-cycle assessment of several cement products. Analysis using SimaPro 6.0 software shows that blended cements provide the greatest environmental savings followed by utilization of CKD for sequestration. The recycling of CKD was found to have little environmental savings over the traditional process.
Many of the opportunities to reduce emissions at relatively low cost are located in developing countries. It appears that these opportunities must be seized to keep atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations from exceeding the 450–550 parts per million (ppm) range suggested by Stern (2007). But poor countries are not immediately capable of taking these opportunities;1 they have other pressing priorities for their scarce resources. The simple conclusion is that rich countries must provide large-scale flows of ‘carbon finance’ to poor countries.
Climate change is likely to exacerbate the poverty and marginalisation of developing country populations. Yet those same populations increasingly have access to information and communications technologies (ICTs). How can we characterise the research work done so far linking ICTs, climate change and development, and what should be the future research priorities? The first part of this report will overview the mergence of a development agenda within ICTs and climate change research to date. The second will identify emerging research ideas, including the argument that “e‑resilience” represents the key concept linking the ICT, climate change and development fields. Finally, the report will identify emerging themes for future research (and practice).
Climate change constitutes a dynamic, interconnected, yet often uncertain field of study, where the magnitude of environmental impacts is closely related to the various development stressors that underlie vulnerability generally. Literature in the field suggests that challenges faced by developing countries in areas such as livelihoods and finance, sociopolitical conditions, health, habitat and migrations, food security and water, are intensified by the effects of climate changerelated hazards, variability and trends (Hardy, 2003; IPCC, 2007; Parry et al., 2007). At the same time, the exacerbation of these existing vulnerabilities constrains the ability of developing contexts to cope with climate change; that is, to withstand and recover from climaterelated shocks and disturbances, as well as to adapt, in the longer term, to changing climatic conditions. The coping abilities to withstand, recover from, and adapt to climate change – what can, overall, be termed ‘resilience’ – thus emerge as key factors for the achievement of development outcomes.
Paddy soil samples taken from different sites in an old primitive electronic-waste (e-waste) processing region were examined for eco-toxicity and metal contamination. Using the environmental quality standard for soils (China, Grade II) as reference, soil samples of two sites were weakly contaminated with trace metal, but site G was heavily contaminated with Cd (6.37mg kg−1), and weakly contaminated with Cu (256.36mgkg−1) and Zn (209.85mgkg−1). Zn appeared to be strongly bound in the residual fraction (72.24–77.86%), no matter the soil was metal contaminated or not. However, more than 9% Cd and 16% Cu was present in the non-residual fraction in the metal contaminated soils than in the uncontaminated soil, especially for site G and site F. Compared with that of the control soil, the micronucleus rates of site G and site F soil treatments increased by 2.7-fold and 1.7-fold, respectively. Low germination rates were observed in site C (50%) and site G (50%) soil extraction treated rice seeds. The shortest root length (0.2377 cm) was observed in site G soil treated groups, which is only 37.57% of that of the control soil treated groups. All of the micronucleus ratio of Vicia faba root cells, rice germination rate and root length after treatment of soil extraction indicate the eco-toxicity in site F and G soils although the three indexes are different in sensitivity to soil metal contamination.
In October 2007, the Nobel Peace Prize was awarded jointly to former US vice-president Al Gore and to the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) with a citation “for their efforts to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about man-made climate change, and to lay the foundations for the measures that are needed to counteract such change”. The award recognizes that climate change represents a threat to mankind on a similar level to violent conflict and war, and indeed can lead to a breakdown of peace because of the increased competition for the earth’s resources. Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are undoubtedly part of the cause of global warming as witnessed, for instance, by the millions of computer screens that are left switched on overnight in offices around the world. But ICTs can also be part of a solution, because of the role they play in monitoring, mitigating and adapting to it. The framework for ITU’s concern with the role of telecommunications and information technologies in the protection of the environment was provided initially at the Plenipotentiary Conference, 1994 (Resolution 351, Kyoto) and at the World Telecommunication Development Conferences, in 1998 (Resolution 82, Valletta), in 2002 (Recommendation 73, Istanbul) and in 2006 (Resolution 544, Doha). In 2007, ITU and its membership and partners launched a major programme to investigate the specific relationship between ICTs and climate change. At the meeting of the Telecommunication Standardization Advisory Group (TSAG) in December 2007, a Technology Watch Briefing Report on this topic was reviewed5. TSAG provided advice to the Director of the Telecommunication Standardization Bureau (TSB) on a number of actions, including the holding of two symposia during the first half of 20086. They will take place in Kyoto, Japan, 15-16 April 2008, co-organized and hosted by the Ministry of International Affairs and Communications (MIC) and in London, UK, 17-18 June 2008, supported and hosted by BT plc. This report has been prepared by the ITU secretariat as a background paper for the two symposia, drawing upon the Technology Watch Briefing Report as well as material from the ITU Telecommunication Development and Radiocommunications Sectors. It looks at the potential role that ICTs play at different stages, from contributing to global warming (section 2), to monitoring it (3), to developing long-term solutions to mitigate its effects, both
directly in the ICT sector (4) and in other sectors like energy, transport, buildings etc (5), and finally to helping to adapt to its effects (section 6). This corresponds to the main sessions in the agenda of the two symposia. In addition, an annex to this report looks in more detail at the work currently being carried out in ITU and the campaign for a climate-neutral UN.
Amidst the unmistakable signs of a changing climate, the global community is just beginning to understand the potential magnitude and severity of its impacts, not just now but for generations to come. Melting glaciers, displaced populations seeking refuge after floods, crops lost during over-extensive periods of drought, or entire villages devastated by the implacable force of cyclones and hurricanes, are just some of the stories emerging from different corners of the planet; in particular from the poorest, most vulnerable countries of the world. Emerging evidence indicates that both acute (i.e. extreme weather events) and chronic climate effects (i.e. longer-term changes in the environment) can have serious developmental effects that hit particularly hard those countries that are already experiencing the hardships of poverty and marginalization (IPCC, 2007). But alongside increasing awareness of the manifestations of climate change and the growing momentum of the debate, the role of information and communication technologies (ICTs) is starting to emerge and to shed light on potentially innovative approaches to respond, prepare for, and adapt to climate change impacts. Sources in the field started to explore the linkages between the information society and sustainable development in the late 1990s, shifting their focus in the early 2000s from broader global environmental issues to CO2 emissions and mitigation, thus addressing more specifically the role of ICTs in climate change. However, these explorations on the role of ICTs – in the reduction of emissions through smart grids, dematerialization or intelligent transport systems and buildings, among others – have focused mainly on addressing the priorities of developed countries in regards to climate change. Despite the prevalence of the mitigation lens among available sources, a growing body of literature indicates the emergence of research in the areas of adaptation and climate change strategies, acknowledging the priorities of developing contexts and the potential of ICTs. Experiences from vulnerable communities in Asia, Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean point to the use of applications such as mobile phones, the Internet and community radio as part of climate change responses, including the strengthening of local livelihoods, natural resources management and training, access to relevant information and networking opportunities, and awareness raising, among others. However, this constitutes a very new field of enquiry where much remains to be explored. Developing country priorities and perspectives need to become a central part of the debate, if the potential of these technologies is to contribute to more holistic, inclusive responses to the challenges posed by the changing climate.